Archive for the 'Upright Piano' Category
Vertical (Upright) Piano Action Diagram

How and upright piano action functions.
When the key is pressed, it rocks on the center rail, moving upwards at the back. In doing so, it raised the wippen. The wippen operates the jack, which in turn pushes the hammer butt. The butt pivots on its flange and moves the hammer towards the string. When the key is half way down, the damper spoon engages with the damper level, lifting the damper off the strings. When the hammer is almost hit to the string, the jack heel meets the set-off button and as wippen keeps moving up, the jack pivots and moves out from under the butt. the hammer then continues under its own inertia to the string, instantly rebounding. the catcher is caught by the backcheck and is held in the position as long as the key remains depressed.

When the key is released, the wippen drops, the backcheck releases the catcher, the bridle tape exerts a tug on the hammer butt and with the help of the butt spring, the hammer returns to the hammer rail . The damper spring returns the damper to the strings and the jack spring returns the jack under the butt, ready for the next repetition. This entire sequence is momentary, allowing rapid repetition of the notes.

Upright piano action: upright piano internal operation.
Hammer Top Felt: cloth surrounding the hammer.
Hammer: piece that hits the string to make it vibrate.
Hammer Rail: hammer support when it is not operated.
Catcher: piece that catches the hammer tail when it falls.
Backcheck: piece that catches the hammer tail when it falls.
Key: part of the keyboard that is pressed to produce a note.
Wippen: piece to which the strings are attached and that transmits the sound to the soundboard.
Jack: piece that sends the hammer head towards the string.
Hammer Butt: part of the hammer that is pushed by the jack.
Spring Rail: support for the damper when it is not operated.
Damper: piece that prevents the string from vibrating.
String: part of the piano that produces the sound by vibration when hit.

The Inner Workings of One Note in an Upright Piano

The animation in the illustration is in slow motion. The actual time from when a finger begins to depress a key to the point where the hammer strikes the string can be less than tenth of a second.

  1. Damper Block Screw
  2. Damper Wire
  3. Damper Spring
  4. Damper Flange Screw
  5. Damper Flange
  6. Damper Level
  7. Damper Level Cloth
  8. Center Pin
  9. Damper Flange Cloth
  10. Damper Level Spring Cord
  11. Damper Felt
  12. Damper Head
  13. Damper Block

  1. Hammer
  2. Hammer Under Felt
  3. Hammer Moulding
  4. Hammer Shank
  5. Spring Bushing Cord
  6. Hammer Butt
  7. Hammer Butt Spring
  8. Hammer Butt Cord
  9. Center Pin
  10. Flange Bushing
  11. Hammer Butt Flange
  12. Butt Under Felt (White)
  13. Flange Screw
  14. Bridle Tape
  15. Bridle Tape Skin
  16. Hammer Butt Felt
  17. Butt Buckskin
  18. Butt Under Felt (Red)
  19. Catcher Buckskin
  20. Catcher
  21. Catcher Shank

under construction

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